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They must, however, use chrism blessed by a patriarch.

Matter and Form There has been much discussion among theologians as to what constitutes the essential matter of this sacrament. Aureolus and Petavius, held that it consists in the imposition of hands. Thomas, Bellarmine, and Maldonatus, maintain that it is the anointing with chrism.

Under certain circumstances, however, as, for instance, danger of death, or when the opportunity of receiving the sacrament is but rarely offered, even younger children may be confirmed.The "imposition", however, is not that with which the rite begins but the laying on of hands which takes place in the act of anointing. De Augustinis, "De re sacramentaria", 2d ed., Rome, 1889, I).As Peter the Lombard declares: Pontifex per impositionem manus confirmandos ungit in fronte (IV Sent., dist. The chrism employed must be a mixture of olive oil and balsam consecrated by a bishop.They should also be in the state of grace; for the Holy Ghost is not given for the purpose of taking away sin but of conferring additional grace.This condition, however, refers only to lawful reception; the sacrament is validly received even by those in mortal sin.